„Frau im Dunkeln“ von Elena Ferrante

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Nach dem Ende der „Neapolitanischen Saga“ bringt der Suhrkamp Verlag die anderen Romane von Elena Ferrante neu heraus – so auch „Frau im Dunkeln.“

Manchmal passiert das: Da wird im Kultur- und Literaturbetrieb ein Roman von allen Seiten über den grünen Klee gelobt, überschlagen sich die Kritiker, Blogger und Buchhändler vor Freude über die Fortsetzung einer Reihe, gibt es monatelang kein anderes Thema mehr als die Frage, wer sich wirklich hinter einem Autor*innenpseudonym versteckt. So ist es geschehen bei Elena Ferrante, deren ausgelöstes „Ferrante-Fieber“ sich wie ein tatsächlicher Virus durch die Feuilletons ausbreitete. Ich blieb – ganz ohne Antibiotika – merkwürdigerweise davon verschont, Meine geniale Freundin tat mir nicht weh beim Lesen, löste aber keinerlei Drang aus, die Geschichte weiterzuverfolgen.

Nun also ein neuer Versuch, sich der rätselhaften Elena Ferrante zu nähern: Frau im Dunkeln erzählt die Geschichte einer Frau Ende Vierzig, sie heißt Leda wie die mythologische Figur aus der Griechischen Antike. Ihre Kinder sind noch nicht ganz erwachsen, haben sich aber bereits zu ihrem Vater nach Kanada verabschiedet; Leda genießt ihre Unabhängigkeit mit wechselnden Affären und entscheidet sich, die Sommerferien in einem Badeort in Süditalien zu verbringen. Nur das Meer, die Sonne und ein paar gute Bücher, so hatte sie sich das gedacht – doch dann taucht zwischen den Strandliegen eine Großfamilie aus Neapel auf (denn Großfamilien aus Neapel sind offenbar ein unvermeidbares Bild in den Romanen der Ferrante), die Leda aus der Ruhe bringen. Die eine Frau ist hochschwanger, die andere trägt ein junges Mädchen mit sich herum, es ist wuselig und laut.

Tag für Tag beobachtet Leda die Familie und kommt nicht umhin, sich mit ihrer eigenen familiären Vergangenheit auseinanderzusetzen: Ob sie ihre beiden Töchter nur bekommen hat, weil das den gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen entsprach, ob sie eine gute Mutter war, wie ihre heutige Beziehung zu ihren Kindern ist. Und: Warum sie diese, noch im jungen Alter, für ein paar Jahre bei ihrem Vater zurückließ, um sich ihrer Karriere zu widmen. Als das kleine Mädchen vom Strand eine schmuddelige Puppe zurücklässt, steckt Leda diese kurzerhand ein – eine folgenschwere Tat, die unverständlich bleibt, Leda aber in Kontakt mit der Großfamilie bringt.

Was bedeutet moderne Mutterschaft?

Die Geschichte spitzt sich in einem langsamen, fast trägen Tempo zu, man hört die Wellen rauschen und fühlt die leichte Lethargie, die sich in der Hitze des süditalienischen Sommers wie ein Schleier über die Gedanken Ledas legt. Diese dreht sich wie ein Kreisel um sich selbst, hinterfragt einerseits das Rollenbild, dass Frauen noch immer aufgezwungen wird, das mit dem modernen Verständnis von Weiblichkeit und Mutterschaft aber ganz oft nicht vereinbar ist – andererseits ist sie nur teilweise bereit, sich vom Bild der „guten Mutter“, dem sie in ihren Augen ganz offensichtlich nicht entspricht, zu lösen. Sie schwankt, sie ist verunsichert, sie rechtfertigt sich, sie trauert, sie ist wütend – und neidisch auf die junge Mutter am Strand. Mit der entwendeten Puppe versucht Leda – ob es ihr bewusst ist, wird nicht klar – einen Keil zwischen die Frau und ihre kleine Tochter zu bringen, ihr zu zeigen, dass Mutterschaft kein Zuckerschlecken ist. Denn bei ihr war es das schließlich auch nicht. Doch dieser Versuch endet nicht gut.

Ferrante weiß, wovon sie schreibt, auch wenn nichts näheres über sie bekannt ist. Ihre glasklare und kühle, dennoch provokante Art, die zutiefst zerrissene Person der Leda zu charakterisieren, erzeugt beim Lesen ein ungutes Gefühl: Ist es vertretbar, mit dieser Frau Mitleid zu haben, ihr gar Verständnis entgegen zu bringen? Was es heutzutage bedeutet, eine Frau und Mutter zu sein, wird in diesem Konflikt sehr eindringlich dargestellt – und auch wenn die Lektüre kein Fieber auslöste, so zeigt sie dennoch, dass es eine Seite der Ferrante gibt, mit der auch ich etwas anfangen kann…

Elena Ferrante
Frau im Dunkeln
Aus dem Italienischen von Anja Nattefort
Suhrkamp Verlag, 2019
Gebunden, 188 Seiten, 22,- EuroA

Erschienen auf „Fräulein Julia“ am 9. Februar 2019

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